Various Types of News Structure
1. Straight News Story
a. The summary lead answers the most important W’s depending on which of the W’s is the most prominent among them.
b. The body consists of the elaboration of the W’s and the H.
The Torres Goldies ripped the Laurel Greenies last week at the High School oval because of better team work, 65-60. (Lead)The Torres team was composed of Antonio Oropeza, captain; Rogelio Romero, forward; Seki Santos, and Dioscoro Reyes, guards. (Elaboration of the WHO)The game was held in the evening of Sept.10 in connection with the celebration of Barangay Day. The Greenies’ defeat was the first they suffered in the current invitational games. (Elaboration of the WHEN and WHO)The Goldies played smoothly. They did not shoot for the basket until they were near it. The cheering squads kept the players’ morale high. (Elaboration of the HOW)
Although the final score was 65-60, there were times when the lead of the Goldies was as much as 10 points. (Further elaboration)
B. News-Feature Story
News-Feature should not be confused with the feature articles (features) which are sometimes called special features and printed in the features sections of the newspapers of in the magazines.
Human interest and news-feature stories are classified as news since both are gathered and written daily by reporters as their regular assignments. Furthermore, both emphasize the elements of timeliness or immediacy which distinguishes news from other types of reading’ although they differ in important respects from the straight news story.
The Yuletide season danced into the school campus in a riot of multicolored lights and X’mas decors hung upon everywhere and every way.
However, the Christmas celebration reached its climax when the traditional lantern parade participated in by students, teachers, parents, community and barangay members were held.
To make the occasion more symbolic and relevant, each unit is carried its own placard for the identification while the members carried lanterns, torches and whatever motif they wanted to depict such as the Nativity, the visit drives were also portrayed.
a. The single-feature story – A single-feature or one-incident story such as an account of a speech, an interview, of an election, deals with an isolated event.
In writing a news-feature story with this kind of structure, include the one-feature in the lead. Add in the body details which clarify and explain the lead.
See that the story breaks logically at every paragraph and that the story may be cut of lengthened as space dictates.
b. The several-feature, multiple-angle or composite story – in a composite story, two or more divergent aspects of a news topic are drawn together for the sake of space and coherence. In structure, the composite story may resemble that of a follow – up story in that both of them aim to consolidate component parts. However, they differ in the sense that the follow – up story ends in a tie – in with a past story; whereas, the composite story is composed of units, each one made up of fresh spot news frequently with reference to the future.
In writing the several-feature or composite story, include all of the features in a comprehensive lead in the order of their importance.
The next step is to explain and elaborate in the body each of the features in the order which they are in the lead. In doing this, relegate less important details of each feature to less important positions. But remember that each chain of facts although covered separately should be handled as a single, unified story.
Examples: Single -Feature Story
c. Fact Story
This is plain exposition of a simple situation of a series of closely related events which conform to the inverted pyramid design more closely than any other kinds of news. The component parts are the series of facts that may be likened to rectangles of diminishing length arranged one after the other in order of their importance.
The key to proper arrangement consists solely in judging the relative value of the data at hand and in grouping them in their respective order.
Kabataan Barangay leaders in Zone 15, Gagalangin, Tondo, Manila met at Osmeňa High School and launched “Operation Ugnayan.” The project aimed to curb community problems caused by juvenile deliquents, and to reactivate community projects started by the City Council but which had slacked due to lack of leadership.
Present in the youth meeting were school administrators, teachers, and adult barangay leaders acting as advisers. (Lead facts)
Report6s reaching the KB concerning drunk outsiders, dope pushers, extortionist and vandals molesting students spurred the youth barangay officers to meet and to offer solutions to the problems.
School officials confirmed to the youth leaders the truth of the reports. (Secondary Facts)
Kabataang Barangay chairman Reynaldo Malonzo suggested the organization of rondas to curb the theft, robbery, holdup, and bag snatching operationsthat have surfaced in the community. Principal Mabini S. A. Gonzales lauded the yputh leaders. She asked them to help solve the deteriorating peace and order condition in the community”
“You are their peers,” she said, “and you understand their problems better.” (Fact III)
Besides tackling the peace and order problems, the youth leaders also mapped out plans to reactivate the different campaigns launched by the MMC such as the Green Revolution, food production, and the clean and beautification drives. KB 176 chair man Carolina Zamora suggested a house-to-house campaign to induce the residents to get involved in the various community projects. She also batted for the holding of sports activities,” to divert the youth’s attention from mischief.” (Fact IV)
d. Action Story
This is a narrative involving not merely simple facts but dramatic actions – incidents, description of persons, perhaps testimonies of witness, as well as explanatory data.
In reading this kind of story, first write a summarizing lead in any appropriate form. Relate the most important details in narrative or chronological form. Tell the story again, giving more details. But be careful not to begin the chronological order just after beginning. Give sufficient attention to the elaboration of important information, background and interpretation. Each unit must be closely interlocked.
Even before the elected officers of the supreme Hi-Y club were inducted into office, they had rolled up their sleeves and began implementing “operation Linis”, one of the campaigns launched by Mapa High School. (Lead incident told)
Armed with brooms, brushes, pails of water and soap, and they gave the school a fresh bath. Because of lack of water due to electric power breakdown, the local Hi-Yers fetched water nearby houses. (More details retold)
The work was focused on the rain-soaked rooms, the stinking toilets and the writing on the walls. They also removed all eyesores like the broken chairs dumped in the corridors and repaired all broken window panes and doors. (More details retold)
After the wok, the officers met in the office of he principal and decided to work for the total development of students through a complete program of study, cultural activity, sports, and physical development. (More details retold)
e. Speech, report, quote, and Interview stories
The arrangements of a speech report, a quote story and of an interview are to great extent similar.
The quote story may be charted as alternating large and small rectangles of diminishing size: summary, quote, summary, quote, summary arrangement. The quotations may be direct, indirect, or a combination of both.
In writing this kind of story, the ff. suggestions may be helpful:
1. Write a summarizing lead in any appropriate form.
2.Write the body of the story in a summary-quote-summary arrangement.
The lead may be a summarizing statement – the gist of the speech, statement, letter, or interview; or it may be the most important quotation in the story written as direct quote.
Example: Quote Story
“Ignorance, not poverty causes malnutrition in the child.”
This was the contention of Mrs. Gloria Gonzales, school nurse after she had made a check up of some sickly-looking students, July 23. She found out that 40 percent of those examined were suffering from eye diseases caused by Vitamin A deficiency in their diet.
“The students were not poor. The way they dresses and the way they talked of their homes proved this,” the nurse said.
“Many parents believe that when they stuff their children with any kind of food, they have already fed them,” she said. “They have a wrong concept that food value is taken only from ham, eggs, cheese, milk and salad. This is better procured from fish, specially dilis, legumes, and vegetables which are relatively cheap at this time when the value of the peso has shrunk,” she said.
The nurse also added that it was only a matter of knowing what food to eat and how much was needed for proper nutrition.
Mrs. Gonzales lamented the fact that the diseases students suffered from were caused not by viruses but by ignorance. She said that they could have been avoided had their mothers only known what kind of food they should have given to their children
Example: Speech Report
“I commend your objectives in molding the youth towards a true balanced development of the mind, body and spirit.
“But this kind of study development is of no consequence if it is not dedicated to God, humanity, family and the self.”
This was the message of DOCS Supt. Josefina R. Navarro when she talked to the newly inducted officers of the Hi-Y board, Sept. 5 at the YMCA Forum Hall, Youth Center, Manila.
Dr. Navarro advised the board members to exemplify their faith in the oath they had just read.
“Consider every student a potential contribution to the country. There is no such thing as stupid student. Each one was created in the image of God. Remind them, lead them by the hand, show them how, and guide them,” the superintendent said.
On the other hand, Dr. Navaro challenged the Hi-Y advisers present “to carry on their task with dedication and to lean to accept the demands of society.”
“Your responsibility to the students, to the parents, to yourself, to the country, and to God is very important.”
Finally, Dr. Navarro, who participated in the candlelight ceremony, commended the principals and other school officials who attended the program.
The newly inducted board member officers were Carlito Reyes, president; Cecilano Jose Cruz, vice president; Tita Palad, secretary; Fructuosa Castro, treasurer; and Ariston Corpuz, auditor.